National Science Education Standards
The National Science Education Standards come from the National Academies of Science. Project 2061, from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, produced two landmark reports: Science for All Americans and Benchmarks for Science Literacy. These provided input to the national science content standards released by the National Research Council in 1996. You can read the contents of the report at a web site hosted by the National Academies Press.
However, these are just the content standards. Each grade level also includes standards for inquiry, understanding relevant or enabling technology, social contexts, and how different sciences (and other academic disciplines) integrate. The more familiar you are with these standards and with the science frameworks established by your state and local school district, the more effective you can be in helping teachers meet required goals.
Finally, just by being in the classroom you demonstrate how rewarding an interest and even a career in Earth science can be, and inspire students to reach beyond any curriculum limits.