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Chapter 1

Astronomy


Section
Number
Benchmark
Florida Next Generation Sunshine State Standards
Section 1 SC.912.N.1.3 Recognize that the strength or usefulness of a scientific claim is evaluated through scientific argumentation, which depends on critical and logical thinking, and the active consideration of alternative scientific explanations to explain the data presented.

SC.912.N.3.5 Describe the function of models in science, and identify the wide range of models used in science.

SC.912.E.5.11 Distinguish the various methods of measuring astronomical distances and apply each in appropriate situations.
Section 2 SC.912.N.1.3 Recognize that the strength or usefulness of a scientific claim is evaluated through scientific argumentation, which depends on critical and logical thinking, and the active consideration of alternative scientific explanations to explain the data presented.

SC.912.N.2.4 Explain that scientific knowledge is both durable and robust and open to change. Scientific knowledge can change because it is often examined and re-examined by new investigations and scientific argumentation. Because of these frequent examinations, scientific knowledge becomes stronger, leading to its durability.

SC.912.N.3.5 Describe the function of models in science, and identify the wide range of models used in science.
Section 3 SC.912.N.1.2 Describe and explain what characterizes science and its methods.

SC.912.N.1.3 Recognize that the strength or usefulness of a scientific claim is evaluated through scientific argumentation, which depends on critical and logical thinking, and the active consideration of alternative scientific explanations to explain the data presented.

SC.912.N.1.6 Describe how scientific inferences are drawn from scientific observations and provide examples from the content being studied.

SC.912.N.3.3 Explain that scientific laws are descriptions of specific relationships under given conditions in nature, but do not offer explanations for those relationships.

SC.912.N.3.4 Recognize that theories do not become laws, nor do laws become theories; theories are well-supported explanations and laws are well-supported descriptions.

SC.912.N.3.5 Describe the function of models in science, and identify the wide range of models used in science.

SC.912.E.5.1 Cite evidence used to develop and verify the scientific theory of the big bang (also known as the big bang theory) of the origin of the universe.

SC.912.E.5.2 Identify patterns in the organization and distribution of matter in the universe and the forces that determine them.

SC.912.E.5.5 Explain the formation of planetary systems based on our knowledge of our Solar System and apply this knowledge to newly discovered planetary systems.
Section 4 SC.912.N.1.3 Recognize that the strength or usefulness of a scientific claim is evaluated through scientific argumentation, which depends on critical and logical thinking, and the active consideration of alternative scientific explanations to explain the data presented.

SC.912.N.3.3 Explain that scientific laws are descriptions of specific relationships under given conditions in nature, but do not offer explanations for those relationships.

SC.912.N.3.5 Describe the function of models in science, and identify the wide range of models used in science.

SC.912.E.5.2 Identify patterns in the organization and distribution of matter in the universe and the forces that determine them.

SC.912.E.5.6 Develop logical connections through physical principles, including Kepler’s and Newton’s Laws about the relationships and the effects of Earth, Moon, and Sun on each other.

SC.912.P.12.2 Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration (with respect to a frame of reference) as functions of time.
Section 5 SC.912.N.1.3 Recognize that the strength or usefulness of a scientific claim is evaluated through scientific argumentation, which depends on critical and logical thinking, and the active consideration of alternative scientific explanations to explain the data presented.

SC.912.N.1.4 Identify sources of information and assess their reliability according to the strict standards of scientific investigation.

SC.912.N.1.6 Describe how scientific inferences are drawn from scientific observations and provide examples from the content being studied.

SC.912.N.3.1 Explain that a scientific theory is the culmination of many scientific investigations drawing together all the current evidence concerning a substantial range of phenomena; thus, a scientific theory represents the most powerful explanation scientists have to offer.

SC.912.N.3.3 Explain that scientific laws are descriptions of specific relationships under given conditions in nature, but do not offer explanations for those relationships.

SC.912.N.3.5 Describe the function of models in science, and identify the wide range of models used in science.

SC.912.E.5.2 Identify patterns in the organization and distribution of matter in the universe and the forces that determine them.

SC.912.E.5.6 Develop logical connections through physical principles, including Kepler’s and Newton’s Laws about the relationships and the effects of Earth, Moon, and Sun on each other.

SC.912.P.12.4 Describe how the gravitational force between two objects depends on their masses and the distance between them.

LA.910.4.2.2 The student will record information and ideas from primary and/or secondary sources accurately and coherently, noting the validity and reliability of these sources and attributing sources of information.

MA.912.S.3.2 Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following:
  • bar graphs
  • line graphs
  • stem and leaf plots
  • circle graphs
  • histograms
  • box and whisker plots
  • scatter plots
  • cumulative frequency (ogive) graphs.
Section 6 SC.912.N.1.3 Recognize that the strength or usefulness of a scientific claim is evaluated through scientific argumentation, which depends on critical and logical thinking, and the active consideration of alternative scientific explanations to explain the data presented.

SC.912.N.3.2 Describe the role consensus plays in the historical development of a theory in any one of the disciplines of science.

SC.912.N.3.5 Describe the function of models in science, and identify the wide range of models used in science.

SC.912.E.5.2 Identify patterns in the organization and distribution of matter in the universe and the forces that determine them.
Section 7 SC.912.N.1.4 Identify sources of information and assess their reliability according to the strict standards of scientific investigation.

SC.912.N.1.6 Describe how scientific inferences are drawn from scientific observations and provide examples from the content being studied.

SC.912.N.2.4 Explain that scientific knowledge is both durable and robust and open to change. Scientific knowledge can change because it is often examined and re-examined by new investigations and scientific argumentation. Because of these frequent examinations, scientific knowledge becomes stronger, leading to its durability.

SC.912.N.2.5 Describe instances in which scientists’ varied backgrounds, talents, interests, and goals influence the inferences and thus the explanations that they make about observations of natural phenomena and describe that competing interpretations (explanations) of scientists are a strength of science as they are a source of new, testable ideas that have the potential to add new evidence to support one or another of the explanations.

SC.912.N.3.1 Explain that a scientific theory is the culmination of many scientific investigations drawing together all the current evidence concerning a substantial range of phenomena; thus, a scientific theory represents the most powerful explanation scientists have to offer.

SC.912.N.3.2 Describe the role consensus plays in the historical development of a theory in any one of the disciplines of science.

SC.912.E.5.4 Explain the physical properties of the Sun and its dynamic nature and connect them to conditions and events on Earth.

SC.912.P.10.4 Describe heat as the energy transferred by convection, conduction, and radiation, and explain the connection of heat to change in temperature or states of matter.

LA.910.4.2.2 The student will record information and ideas from primary and/or secondary sources accurately and coherently, noting the validity and reliability of these sources and attributing sources of information.

MA.912.S.3.2 Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following:
  • bar graphs
  • line graphs
  • stem and leaf plots
  • circle graphs
  • histograms
  • box and whisker plots
  • scatter plots
  • cumulative frequency (ogive) graphs.
Section 8 SC.912.N.1.3 Recognize that the strength or usefulness of a scientific claim is evaluated through scientific argumentation, which depends on critical and logical thinking, and the active consideration of alternative scientific explanations to explain the data presented.

SC.912.N.1.6 Describe how scientific inferences are drawn from scientific observations and provide examples from the content being studied.

SC.912.N.1.7 Recognize the role of creativity in constructing scientific questions, methods and explanations.

SC.912.N.2.5 Describe instances in which scientists’ varied backgrounds, talents, interests, and goals influence the inferences and thus the explanations that they make about observations of natural phenomena and describe that competing interpretations (explanations) of scientists are a strength of science as they are a source of new, testable ideas that have the potential to add new evidence to support one or another of the explanations.

SC.912.E.5.8 Connect the concepts of radiation and the electromagnetic spectrum to the use of historical and newly developed observational tools.

SC.912.P.10.4 Describe heat as the energy transferred by convection, conduction, and radiation, and explain the connection of heat to change in temperature or states of matter.

SC.912.P.10.18 Explore the theory of electromagnetism by comparing and contrasting the different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of wavelength, frequency, and energy, and relate them to phenomena and applications.

SC.912.P.10.19 Explain that all objects emit and absorb electromagnetic radiation and distinguish between objects that are blackbody radiators and those that are not.

SC.912.P.10.20 Describe the measurable properties of waves and explain the relationships among them and how these properties change when the wave moves from one medium to another.

SC.912.P.12.7 Recognize that nothing travels faster than the speed of light in vacuum which is the same for all observers no matter how they or the light source are moving.

MA.912.S.3.2 Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following:
  • bar graphs
  • line graphs
  • stem and leaf plots
  • circle graphs
  • histograms
  • box and whisker plots
  • scatter plots
  • cumulative frequency (ogive) graphs.
Section 9 SC.912.N.1.3 Recognize that the strength or usefulness of a scientific claim is evaluated through scientific argumentation, which depends on critical and logical thinking, and the active consideration of alternative scientific explanations to explain the data presented.

SC.912.N.1.5 Describe and provide examples of how similar investigations conducted in many parts of the world result in the same outcome.

SC.912.N.1.6 Describe how scientific inferences are drawn from scientific observations and provide examples from the content being studied.

SC.912.E.5.3 Describe and predict how the initial mass of a star determines its evolution.

MA.912.S.3.2 Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following:
  • bar graphs
  • line graphs
  • stem and leaf plots
  • circle graphs
  • histograms
  • box and whisker plots
  • scatter plots
  • cumulative frequency (ogive) graphs.
Section 10 SC.912.N.2.4 Explain that scientific knowledge is both durable and robust and open to change. Scientific knowledge can change because it is often examined and re-examined by new investigations and scientific argumentation. Because of these frequent examinations, scientific knowledge becomes stronger, leading to its durability.

SC.912.N.4.1 Explain how scientific knowledge and reasoning provide an empirically based perspective to inform society’s decision making.

SC.912.E.5.7 Relate the history of and explain the justification for future space exploration and continuing technology development.

SC.912.E.5.9 Analyze the broad effects of space exploration on the economy and culture of Florida.

SC.912.E.7.3 Differentiate and describe the various interactions among Earth systems, including: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.

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