In this section you will find materials that support the implementation of EarthComm, Chapter 2: Chapter Challenge.
Volcanic Eruptions and Earthquakes
Frequently Asked Volcano Questions, USGS
Overview of the causes of volcanic eruptions the effects of volcanic eruptions on the Earth system.
Cascades Volcano Observatory, USGS
Comprehensive site that provides maps, graphics, images, and text related to volcanoes and volcanic eruptions.
This online publication is an excellent overview of earthquakes and includes a lot of good graphics and photos.
Frequently Asked Questions, USGS
Covers a wide range of topics to give a good general overview of earthquakes. Additional links are provided if more information is desired.
Where Do Earthquakes Happen?, Michigan Technological University
Covers earthquake occurrences along plate boundaries and along fault planes. Reviews the different types of faults.
Plate Tectonics and Volcanic Eruptions and Earthquakes
FAQs - Earthquakes, Faults, Plate Tectonics, Earth Structure, USGS
Examines the connections between earthquakes and plate tectonics.
"What Drives the Plates?" from This Dynamic Earth, USGS
Reviews the theories behind convection cells as the driving force of plate tectonics and also takes a look as to whether these mechanisms operate now, or in the past, on other planets.
Plate Tectonics: The Mechanism, Museum of Paleontology, University of California at Berkeley
Describes some of the features of plate tectonics.
Understanding Plate Motions, from This Dynamic Planet, USGS
Reviews the types of plate boundaries and the basics of plate motions.
Main Types of Plate Boundaries, from This Dynamic Earth, USGS
Artist's cross section illustrating the main types of plate boundaries.
The Action is at the Edges!, USGS
Overview of the three types of plate motions. Includes good schematic drawings of each type.
The Effects of Volcanic Eruptions and Earthquakes on the Earth System
Magma, Lava, Lava Flows, Lava Lakes, etc., USGS
Learn more background information about lava and the hazards associated with lava flows.
Volcanoes and Climate Change, NASA
This article from NASA's Distributed Active Archive Center details the effects that large scale eruptions, such as the eruption of Mount Pinatubo, can have on the long-term global climate.
Volcano Hazards Fact Sheet – Volcanic Gases, USGS
Discusses why volcanic gases are important to study, how geologists study volcanic gases, and what they have learned.
Effects of Volcanic Gases, Volcano Information Center
Lists the effects of different volcanic gases on the environment, including animals.
Monitoring Volcanoes and Earthquakes
Seismometers, Seismographs, and Seismograms, etc., USGS
Explains how seismographs work, includes diagrams of seismographs and also reviews P and S wave motion and explains how to read Travel-Time curves.
How are Earthquakes Studied?, Michigan Technological University
Includes a photograph and description of the first device used to detect earthquakes and an illustration showing how seismograms are generated.
Monitoring Earthquakes Around the World, USGS
Brief description of how seismograph stations are used to monitor earthquakes.