- Search, describe, and account for patterns in the global distribution of volcanoes and earthquakes.
- Find the latitude and longitude of volcanoes and past earthquakes nearest to your community.
- Make inferences about possible locations of future volcanic and earthquake activity.
- Describe the interior structure of Earth.
- Connect volcanoes and earthquakes with the theory of plate tectonics.
- Determine the direction and rate of movement of plates, using data from the Global Positioning System.
- Recognize that the rate and direction of plate motion is not necessarily constant.
- Calculate the density of liquids and compare their densities with their position in a column of liquid.
- Observe the effects of temperature on the density of a material.
- Examine a model of natural heat flow from within Earth.
- Identify the results of uneven heating within Earth.
- Identify the causes of the movement of lithospheric plates.
- Run a model of a plate moving beneath another plate (subduction).
- Describe several lines of evidence for plate motion.
- Classify and label the types of movement at plate boundaries using a world map that shows relative plate motion.
- Identify the distribution of plates by means of the world map of relative plate motions.
- Describe the present plate tectonic setting of your community.
- Describe the location, nature, and cause of volcanic arcs in terms of plate tectonics.
- Describe the location, nature, and cause of hot spots.
- Explain how plate tectonic processes have caused continents to grow through geologic time.
- Explain how plate tectonic processes produce major landforms.
- Use several present-day distributions of minerals, rock formations, and fossils to help figure out the distribution of continents.
- Construct a map showing the position of continents 250 million years ago by reversing the present direction of plate motion.
- Recognize a convergence of presently widely scattered minerals, rock formations, and fossils when all the continents were part of Pangea.
- Describe the context in which the hypothesis of continental drift was proposed and why it was subject to criticism.
- Show that your community has moved through different ecological regions over time.
- Draw a topographic map from a model.
- Explore the meanings of contour line, contour interval, and relief.
- Interpret topographic maps.
- Recognize volcanic landforms on a topographic map and predict where lava would flow on them.
- Identify basic relationships between magma composition and type of volcano formed.
- Measure and understand how volume, temperature, slope, and channelization affect the flow of fluid.
- Apply an understanding of factors that control lava flows, pyroclastic flows, and lahars (mudflows).
- Apply understanding of topographic maps to predict lahar flow (mudflow) patterns from a given set of data.
- Describe volcanic hazards associated with various kinds of flows.
- Become aware of the benefits of Earth science information in planning evacuations and making decisions.
- Show understanding of the nature of science and a controlled experiment.
- Interpret maps and graph data from volcanic eruptions to understand the range in scale of volcanic eruptions.
- Measure the amount of dissolved gas in a carbonated beverage.
- Understand that volcanoes emit rock, lava, and gases, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide.
- Describe how volcanoes are part of the hydrosphere and water cycle.
- Demonstrate awareness of how volcanoes can affect global temperatures.
- Recognize that volcanoes are part of interactive systems on Earth.
- Generate and describe two types of seismic waves.
- Determine the relative speeds of compressional and shear waves.
- Simulate some of the motions associated with earthquakes.
- Infer the origin of earthquakes and the mechanism of transfer of seismic wave energy.
- Construct a simple seismometer.
- Record motion in two dimensions and also within a fixed time frame.
- Understand how seismometers record earthquake waves.
- Recognize P waves, S waves, and surface waves on seismograms.
- Read a graph to determine the distance to the earthquake epicenter.
- Rank the effects of earthquakes.
- Map the intensity of earthquakes.
- Interpret a map of earthquake intensity to infer the general location of the epicenter.
- Identify geologic materials that pose special problems during earthquakes.
- Explain how the magnitude of an earthquake is determined.
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