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Section 9
Volcanoes and the Atmosphere

In this section you will find materials that support the implementation of EarthComm, Section 9: Volcanoes and the Atmosphere.

Inquiring Further

  1. To learn more about how scientists create models that examine volcanic ash, visit the following web site:

    Volcanic Ash Modeling, NOAA
    Examines the dangers of volcanic ash and how scientists monitor the dispersion of volcanic ash.

  2. To learn more about monitoring efforts of the Cascades Volcano Observatory, visit the following web sites:

    Cascades Volcano Observatory, USGS
    Examine how the Cascades Volcano Observatory intensively monitors restless volcanoes and assesses the hazards of volcanoes.

    Western U.S. Volcanoes Monitored by the Cascades Volcano Observatory, USGS
    Map showing the western U.S. volcanoes monitored by the Cascades Volcano Observatory.

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To learn more about this topic, visit the following web sites:

Particle Types

Ash and Tephra and Pumice and Scoria, etc., USGS
Investigates different types of volcanic particles and the hazards they create.

Distribution and Hazards of Volcanic Ash

Volcanic Air Pollution - A Hazard in Hawaii, USGS
Hawaii serves as a good case study for demonstrating how the hazard of volcanic particles can spread over a wide range.

Volcanic Ash - Danger to Aircraft in the Northern Pacific, USGS
In 1989-1990, a series of eruptions of the Redoubt Volcano in Alaska threatened airplane traffic throughout northern North America. This site includes several examples of the dangers volcanic eruptions can have on airplanes, even if the airplane is hundreds or even thousands of miles from the volcano.

Volcanic Explosivity Index

The Volcanic Explosivity Index, University of North Carolina
Learn more about the classification system volcanologists use to study volcanic eruptions.

Volcanic Gases

Volcanic Gases, Volcano World
Includes different facts about volcanic gases.

Effects of Volcanic Gases, Volcano Information Center
Lists the effects of different volcanic gases on the environment, including animals.

Volcano Hazards Fact Sheet – Volcanic Gases, USGS
Discusses why volcanic gases are important to study, how geologists study volcanic gases, and what they have learned.

Volcanoes and Climate Change

Volcanoes and Climate Change, NASA
This article from NASA's Distributed Active Archive Center details the effects that large scale eruptions, such as the eruption of Mount Pinatubo, can have on the long-term global climate.

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