- Calculate the time required to melt ice.
- Graph data to determine a heating curve for ice.
- Identify and analyze the various sources and distribution of salt water and fresh water on Earth.
- Generate a graphic model of the transport of water between reservoirs within the water cycle.
- Understand that hydrogen bonds can be used to explain some of the unique properties of water.
- Interpret topographic maps to identify large and small streams within your community.
- Explore the nature of a drainage basin.
- Analyze maps to identify the drainage basin in which your community is located.
- Evaluate important interactions between communities and river systems.
- Calculate the angle of repose for different kinds of soils and other granular materials.
- Determine if any areas in your community have slopes that are too steep for safe development.
- Recognize the importance of considering slopes in land development.
- Use models and real-time stream flow data to understand the characteristics of high-gradient streams.
- Identify characteristics of high-gradient streams.
- Calculate stream slope or gradient.
- Identify areas likely to have high-gradient streams.
- Assess possible hazards and benefits of a high-gradient stream on a community.
- Use models and real-time stream flow data to understand the characteristics of low-gradient streams.
- Explore how models can help scientists interpret the natural world.
- Identify areas likely to have low-gradient streams.
- Describe hazards of low-gradient streams.
- Describe and classify sediments according to particle size and shape.
- Describe what happens to sediments composed of different rock types as they are transported in streams.
- Identify the relationship between stream velocity and particle size.
- Identify the relationship between transport distance and particle size.
- Collect, study, and describe local soils and develop a classification system for them.
- Explore how soils form, what a soil profile is, and the importance of soil as a natural resource.
- Identify the relationship between the physical characteristics of a soil and how the soil formed.
- Establish that soil characteristics may vary over time, and that these variations can greatly impact a community.
- Map the location of different soils in your community.
- Make a mathematical model of an imaginary glacier.
- Calculate how the glacier would respond to hypothetical changes in climate.
- Understand the uses and limitations of models in Earth and space science.
- Understand the mechanics of how glaciers form and move.
- Discover that glaciers modify the landscape by erosion and deposition.
- Model the action of glacial meltwater as it drains out of a glacier.
- Establish that the movement of glaciers can change stream drainage patterns.
- Model the effects of a glacier infringing on a stream.
- Apply what you have observed to determine whether glaciers have affected your community in the past.
- Model wind erosion, transport, and deposition.
- Identify the locations of Earth’s wind-dominated landscapes.
- Explain how wind erosion involves the interaction of Earth’s different spheres.
- Model how the surfaces of the oceans interact with winds.
- Model ocean waves and their interaction with coasts.
- Apply ideas about balance in systems to coastal areas.
Use the navigation on the left to find materials that support the relevant sections of this chapter.