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Chapter 4

Surface Processes

Section Learning Outcomes
Section 1
  • Calculate the time required to melt ice.
  • Graph data to determine a heating curve for ice.
  • Identify and analyze the various sources and distribution of salt water and fresh water on Earth.
  • Generate a graphic model of the transport of water between reservoirs within the water cycle.
  • Understand that hydrogen bonds can be used to explain some of the unique properties of water.
Section 2
  • Interpret topographic maps to identify large and small streams within your community.
  • Explore the nature of a drainage basin.
  • Analyze maps to identify the drainage basin in which your community is located.
  • Evaluate important interactions between communities and river systems.
Section 3
  • Calculate the angle of repose for different kinds of soils and other granular materials.
  • Determine if any areas in your community have slopes that are too steep for safe development.
  • Recognize the importance of considering slopes in land development.
Section 4
  • Use models and real-time stream flow data to understand the characteristics of high-gradient streams.
  • Identify characteristics of high-gradient streams.
  • Calculate stream slope or gradient.
  • Identify areas likely to have high-gradient streams.
  • Assess possible hazards and benefits of a high-gradient stream on a community.
Section 5
  • Use models and real-time stream flow data to understand the characteristics of low-gradient streams.
  • Explore how models can help scientists interpret the natural world.
  • Identify areas likely to have low-gradient streams.
  • Describe hazards of low-gradient streams.
Section 6
  • Describe and classify sediments according to particle size and shape.
  • Describe what happens to sediments composed of different rock types as they are transported in streams.
  • Identify the relationship between stream velocity and particle size.
  • Identify the relationship between transport distance and particle size.
Section 7
  • Collect, study, and describe local soils and develop a classification system for them.
  • Explore how soils form, what a soil profile is, and the importance of soil as a natural resource.
  • Identify the relationship between the physical characteristics of a soil and how the soil formed.
  • Establish that soil characteristics may vary over time, and that these variations can greatly impact a community.
  • Map the location of different soils in your community.
Section 8
  • Make a mathematical model of an imaginary glacier.
  • Calculate how the glacier would respond to hypothetical changes in climate.
  • Understand the uses and limitations of models in Earth and space science.
  • Understand the mechanics of how glaciers form and move.
  • Discover that glaciers modify the landscape by erosion and deposition.
  • Model the action of glacial meltwater as it drains out of a glacier.
  • Establish that the movement of glaciers can change stream drainage patterns.
  • Model the effects of a glacier infringing on a stream.
  • Apply what you have observed to determine whether glaciers have affected your community in the past.
Section 9
  • Model wind erosion, transport, and deposition.
  • Identify the locations of Earth’s wind-dominated landscapes.
  • Explain how wind erosion involves the interaction of Earth’s different spheres.
Section 10
  • Model how the surfaces of the oceans interact with winds.
  • Model ocean waves and their interaction with coasts.
  • Apply ideas about balance in systems to coastal areas.

Use the navigation on the left to find materials that support the relevant sections of this chapter.