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Section 5
Low-Gradient Streams

In this section you will find materials that support the implementation of EarthComm, Section 5: Low-Gradient Streams.


  1. To find data on the discharge of rivers in the United States , visit the following web site:

    Real-Time Water Data for the Nation, USGS
    Identify your local river and find data on its discharge, drainage basin area, and stream velocity.

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Inquiring Further

  1. To learn more about the floods of 1993, 1997, and 2001 visit the following web sites:

    The Great USA Flood of 1993, NOAA
    Describes the causes and damage that resulted from the 1993 midwest flood.

    The Great Flood of 1993 on the Upper Mississippi River—10 Years Later, USGS
    Provides data on The Great Flood of 1993.

    Red River of the North Flooding – 1997, USGS
    Describes the flow conditions and effects from flooding of the Red River of the North in 1997.

    Red River of the North at Grand Forks, North Dakota
    129 Years, USGS
    Background information on the 1997 Red River flood.

    April 2001 Flood - Spring Snowmelt, NOAA
    Provides information on the flooding conditions on the upper Mississippi River basin in 2001.

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To learn more about this topic, visit the following web sites:

Meandering Streams

Pictures of Meandering Streams, Oregon State University
Examples of meandering streams around America.

Streams and the Hydrologic Cycle

Earth's Water: Groundwater, USGS
Describes how water gets into the ground.  Also explains what an aquifer is and who uses ground water.  Provides information on how water is taken out of the ground.

The Hydrologic Cycle and Interactions  of Ground Water and Surface Water, USGS
Provides information about ground water and surface water interactions.

Hazards: Floods on Low-Gradient Streams

Options for State Flood Control Policies and a Flood Control Program, Vermont Agency of Natural Resources
This report serves as an example of how one state prepares for floods.

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