- Determine the effects of Earth’s rotation and the uneven heating of Earth by the Sun on the circulation of the atmosphere.
- Identify bands of high and low air pressure at Earth’s surface.
- Distinguish major patterns of wind at Earth’s surface and in the upper atmosphere.
- Investigate how the density of air alters with change in air temperature.
- Learn how air masses at different temperatures interact.
- Measure the elements that make up weather.
- Compare weather forecasts with weather data.
- Relate the frequency of thunderstorms to the topography of an area.
- Relate the occurrence of thunderstorms to the temperature in an area.
- Identify areas in the United States where thunderstorms are relatively frequent.
- Determine why severe weather often occurs during specific seasons.
- Examine the relationships between thunderstorms and flash floods.
- Construct a map of tornado frequency throughout the United States.
- Determine the likelihood of a tornado occurring where you live.
- Describe the relationship between tornado and thunderstorm distribution across the United States.
- Explain the relationship between tornado frequency and time of year.
- Examine tornado safety procedures to follow while at school, home, or outside.
- Identify the misconceptions related to tornado safety.
- Understand how tropical cyclones are classified.
- Identify hurricane patterns in space and time.
- Track the path and atmospheric pressure of a hurricane.
- Examine the processes and hazards of catastrophic hurricane events.
- Understand the general paths of surface ocean currents.
- Determine the average speed of surface ocean currents in the Pacific Ocean.
- Understand how the winds drive surface ocean circulation.
- Understand how surface ocean circulation patterns change during an El Niño event.
- Understand how ocean circulation can influence climate.
- Understand how the Coriolis effect influences ocean circulation patterns.
- Understand how water temperature affects circulation within a body of water.
- Understand how salinity affects circulation within a body of water.
- Understand the nature and causes of water circulation in the deep ocean.
- Investigate convection cells and their relationship to deep ocean circulation.
- Understand how sea surface temperatures vary during an El Niño event.
- Understand how to use data on sea surface temperatures to make inferences about changes in ocean circulation.
- Use remote-sensing data to determine the extent and duration of the 1997–1998 El Niño event.
- Identify factors of the physical environment.
- Use a topographic map to gather data about elevation and latitude, and physical features.
- Interpret data from a climate data table.
- Compare and contrast climate information from two different parts of the United States.
- Understand how physical features can influence the climate of an area.