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Chapter Challenge

In this section you will find materials that support the implementation of EarthComm, Chapter 6: Chapter Challenge.


Reference

Article 1: How Has Global Climate Changed Over Time?

The Meaning of Climate

Climate, NOAA
Looks at how the world’s climates can be divided into categories.

Examples of Past Climates

What is a Glacier?, National Snow and Ice Data Center
Provides information on glacial formation, movement, and associated landforms.

Investigating Climate Change of Western North America, USGS
Learn more about climate change and the study of the geological record for Western North America.

How Geologists Find Out about Past Climates

North American Drought: A Paleo Perspective, NOAA
Explores paleoclimatic data and how it can provide information about past droughts.

Paleo Proxy Data, NOAA
Lists and describes the most widely-used proxy climate data types.

Paleoclimates and Pollen, UCAR
Information on the background, trends, and evidence of paleoclimates.

Fossil Pollen, Northern Arizona University
Learn why fossil pollen is a useful tool for determining paleoclimates.

Spores and Pollen, USGS
Learn how pollen can yield records of vegetation and community changes over time.

Why Study Ice Cores?, National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL), USGS
Includes a brief description about why ice cores are an important source of information.

Sea Sediments, Enviropedia
Learn more about sediments found on the sea floor and information that can be revealed by investigating these sediments.

About Tree Rings, University of Arizona
Overview of the dating and study of annual rings in trees, including what they tell us.

Your Community’s Present Climate

Climate, NOAA
Looks at how the world’s climates can be divided into categories.

Article 2: Causes of Global Climate Change

Milankovitch Cycles

Paleoclimatology: Explaining the Evidence, NASA
Examines the connection between eccentricity, axial tilt, and precession in relation to past glaciations.

Milankovitch Cycles, U.S. Naval Observatory
Explains the role that the three different aspects of Milankovitch Cycles play in the seasons.

Plate Tectonics

Hot Vents and Global Climate, platetectonics.com
Learn more about how plate tectonics affect Climate Change.

Climate Change - Plate Tectonics, Lyndon State College
Looks at how plate tectonics affect climate change.

Ocean Currents

How the Oceans Influence Climate, The Global Development Research Center
Looks at the influence of ocean circulation on climate.

Ocean Currents and Climate, USC
Learn more about the different oceanic currents and the role those currents play on climate change.

Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases

Global Warming FAQ, NASA
Provides descriptions of global warming and greenhouse gasses. Also contains several helpful links to other sites on greenhouse gasses.

What's Climate Change?, INNOVA Center for Sustainable Development
Offers information on factors affecting climates, including both natural and human factors.

Article 3: What is “Global Warming” and How Might It Affect Our Community?

Greenhouse Gases

Global Warming FAQ, NASA
Provides descriptions of global warming and greenhouse gasses. Also contains several helpful links to other sites on greenhouse gasses.

What's Climate Change?, INNOVA Center for Sustainable Development
Offers information on factors affecting climates, including both natural and human factors.

Humans and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere

What's Climate Change?, INNOVA Center for Sustainable Development
Offers information on factors affecting climates, including both natural and human factors.

Climate FAQ, NASA
Provides descriptions of global warming and greenhouse gasses. Also contains several helpful links to other sites on greenhouse gasses.

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory, EPA
View US emission data on greenhouse gases from 1990 through 2009.

Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming

Carbon Cycle Science Breakthroughs. . . . at NOAA and Beyond, NOAA
Provides useful graphics and text to introduce the carbon cycle and makes relevant the importance of understanding this cycle.

The Carbon Cycle, NASA
Explains the parts and processes involved in the carbon cycle.

Understanding the Global Carbon Cycle, Woods Hole Research Center
Reviews the basics of the global carbon cycle and how fossil fuels are linked to the cycle.

Effects of Global Warming

Background Information: Sea Surface and Sea Level, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, DOE
Reviews terms commonly used to describe sea level change, the causes of long- and short-term sea level change, how sea level change is tied to global warming, how weather impacts sea level, and more.

Sea Level and Climate, USGS
Looks at how glacial-interglacial cycles impact sea level and how the melting of today's glaciers could cause sea level to rise.

The Contribution of the Cryosphere to Changes in Sea Level, National Snow and Ice Data Center
Reviews the influence of glaciers on sea level. Includes a graph that shows how glaciers have contributed to sea level changes over the past 40 years.

Future Temperature Changes, EPA
Provides information on why scientists say deserts are likely to expand as a result of global warming.

Future Climate Change, EPA
Examines what the future holds for the Earth with Climate Change.

National Close-up: Science Talk, Washington Post
Glacial melting effects many systems in and surrounding our oceans. Reporters address typical questions regarding these relationships.

Predicting Climate Change

Weather Prediction, Climate Prediction. What’s the Diff?, Duke University
Describes how weather predication and climate predication are different and problems inherent in each.

Climate Change - Waste, EPA
Considers how reliable computer models are for forecasting climate.

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