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Section 1

In this section you will find materials that support the implementation of EarthComm, Section 1: Paleoclimates.

Inquiring Further

  1. To learn more about the Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP2), visit the following web site:

    Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2, NASA
    Explores the retrieval of the longest deep-ice core ever from the Northern Hemisphere.

  2. To learn more about techniques for dating deep-sea sediments, visit the following web sites:

    Magnetic Stripes and Isotopic Clocks, USGS
    Provides information on astounding observations of ocean rocks that led to the unlocking of an important geological story.

    The Use of Biostratigraphy in Different Sediment Types, J&G Consultants
    Provides basic information on biostratigraphy in two main environments: terrestrial and marine.

  3. To learn more about paleoclimates in the United States, visit the following web sites:

    North American Drought: A Paleo Perspective, NOAA
    Explores paleoclimatic data and how it can provide information about past droughts.

    Climatologist's Toolbox, University of Wisconsin
    Learn how mud sediment in Walden Pond reveals evidence of its past environments.

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To learn more about this topic, visit the following web sites:

Direct Records and Proxies

Paleo Proxy Data, NOAA
Lists and describes the most widely-used proxy climate data types.

Paleoclimates and Pollen, UCAR
Information on the background, trends, and evidence of paleoclimates.

Fossil Pollen

Fossil Pollen, Northern Arizona University
Learn why fossil pollen is a useful tool for determining paleoclimates.

Spores and Pollen, USGS
Learn how pollen can yield records of vegetation and community changes over time.

Investigating Climate Change of Western North America, USGS
Learn more about climate change and the study of the geological record for Western North America.

Ice Cores

Why Study Ice Cores?, National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL), USGS
Includes a brief description about why ice cores are an important source of information.

How is it done?, National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL), USGS
Takes you step by step through the process of taking, obtaining, and studying an ice core.

Sea Sediments

Sea Sediments, Enviropedia
Learn more about sediments found on the sea floor and information that can be revealed by investigating these sediments.

Glacial Landforms and Sediments

What is a Glacier?, National Snow and Ice Data Center
Provides information on glacial formation, movement, and associated landforms.

Tree Rings

About Tree Rings, University of Arizona
Overview of the dating and study of annual rings in trees, including what they tell us.

References in Dendrochronology, University of Tennessee
Provides additional resources for tree ring research.

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