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Section 2
How Do Earth's Orbital Variations Affect Climate?

In this section you will find materials that support the implementation of EarthComm, Section 2: How Do Earth's Orbital Variations Affect Climate?.

Inquiring Further

  1. To learn more about sunspots and global climate, visit the following web sites:

    The Sun-Climate Connection (Did Sunspots Sink the Titanic?), NOAA
    Explores the relationship between solar variability and climate change.

    The Sun and Sunspots, NOAA
    Learn about the effects on Earth's climate by increases or decreases in sunspot activity.

  2. To learn more about Milutin Milankovitch, visit the following web site:

    Milutin Milankovitch, NASA
    Explores the history of Serbian astrophysicist, MilutinMilankovitch, and his theories of Earth
    motions and long-term climate change.

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To learn more about this topic, visit the following web sites:

The Earth's Axial Tilt and the Seasons

Imagine the Universe - Ask an Astrophysicist, NASA
Learn how the Earth's tilt affects the seasons and the relationship between different angles of the Earth and seasons.

Earth's Orbital Variations and Climate

Astronomical Theory of Climate Change, NOAA
Learn how the Earth's not-so-circular orbit around the sun affects our climate.

Global Climate Change: Effect of the Earth's Orbit, Missouri Department of Natural Resources
Examines how the solar energy received by the earth is both cyclical and variable due to the changes in the earth's orbit and inclination. Explores how these variations affect global climates.


Paleoclimatology: Explaining the Evidence, NASA
Examines the connection between eccentricity, axial tilt, and precession in relation to past glaciations.


Precession, NASA
Describes the development and background behind the idea of precession.

Precession, University of Oregon
Explains how the north star can change as the Earth wobbles on its axis.

Milankovitch Cycles

Milankovitch Cycles, U.S. Naval Observatory
Explains the role that the three different aspects of Milankovitch Cycles play in the seasons.

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