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Section 2
The Evolution of the Fluid Spheres

In this section you will find materials that support the implementation of EarthComm, Section 2: The Evolution of the Fluid Spheres .

Inquiring Further

  1. To learn more about Earth’s magnetic field and the aurora borealis , visit the following web sites:

    Aurora Borealis, Alaska Public Lands Information Centers
    Describes the Aurora Borealis and the conditions under which they occur.

    Space Weather and Aurora, NASA
    A series of links provide more information about Aurora, what causes them, their connection to solar wind, and how they have intrigued people through time.

    Auroras, The Exploratorium
    Examines the conditions that create auroras.

  2. To learn more about earth’s early atmosphere and greenhouse gases, visit the following web sites:

    Continents Played Key Role in Collapse and Regeneration of Earth’s Early Greenhouse Gas, Geologists Say, NASA
    Looks at research that is being conducted to study Earth’s early atmosphere and its greenhouse gases.

    Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Greater 1.4 Billion Years Ago, NASA
    Describes a scientific model that has been used to determine how much greenhouse gas there was in Earth’s ancient atmosphere.

    Earth's Atmosphere, Northwestern College
    Examines the evolution of Earth’s atmosphere.  Overview of the greenhouse gases in Earth’s early atmosphere and the role these gases played in Earth’s early climate.

  3. To learn more about Io, visit the following web sites:

    Io: Overview, NASA
    Examines Io, its volcanic activity, and the effect of its orbit around Jupiter.

    Io and Other Moons of Jupiter, NASA
    Looks at the research history of Io, including the discovery that Io is the most active volcanic body in the solar system. Explains how Jupiter’s mass affects Io.

    Jupiter: Moons, NASA
    Explains the effects of Jupiter’s gravity on Io’s volcanic activity.

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To learn more about this topic, visit the following web sites:

Gases and Liquids in Mantle Rocks

Volcanic Gases and Their Effects, USGS
Examines the dissolved gases in magma and how they are released into the atmosphere during eruptions.

The Evolution of Earth’s Fluid Spheres

Origin of the Earth's Atmosphere, Eastern Illinois University
Describes the compositions of Earth’s atmospheres and how they were produced.

How did Earth’s atmosphere and oceans form?, The University of Michigan
Looks at Earth’s early atmosphere and how it was formed by the release of gases trapped in Earth’s interior.

Early Interactions Between the Fluid Spheres and the Young Earth

The Carbon Cycle and Earth's Climate, Columbia University
Describes the cycling of carbon through the Earth system and the role carbon plays in the weathering of rocks.

Fluid Spheres on Other Planets and Moons

Outgassing of a Lunar Atmosphere, Windows to the Universe
Describes the Moon’s atmosphere and where its gases come from.

How Planet Formation affects an Atmosphere, University of Utah
Looks at the processes that determine whether a planet will have an atmosphere or not.

Questions and Answers about the Atmosphere on Mars, NASA
Provides a series of questions and answers about the atmosphere on Mars.

The Atmosphere of Venus, Windows to the Universe
Overview of the atmosphere of Venus.

Venus, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Describes the composition and characteristics of the atmosphere of Venus.

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