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Section 4
The Bioshpere and the Evolution of the Atmosphere

In this section you will find materials that support the implementation of EarthComm, Section 4: The Biosphere and the Evolution of the Atmosphere.

Inquiring Further

  1. To learn more about banded iron formations, visit the following web sites:

    Banded Iron Formation, Government of Saskatchewan
    Overview of both Superior type and Algoma type banded iron formations.

    Chemical and Biogenic Rocks, University of Maryland
    Contains a section on banded iron formations and the differences between Superior type and Algoma type.

  2. To learn more about mining the banded iron formations and processing iron ore, visit the following web sites:

    Iron Ores, Mining Artifacts and History

    Iron Mining: Where and Why?, Michigan State University
    History of iron discovery and production in Michigan.

    The Lake Superior Iron Ranges: Geology and Mining, USGS
    Overview of the discovery, shipping, and processing of iron ore from the Lake Superior region.

    The Steel Making Industry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    A look at how iron ore is processed into steel.

  3. To learn more about the great oxygenation event, visit the following web sites:

    Early life: Oxygen Enters the Atmosphere, BBC
    Examines the great oxygenation event, also called the Oxygen Catastrophe or Oxygen Crisis.

    Geologists revisit the Great Oxygenation Event, Washington University in Saint Louis
    Examines the rise of oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere and its effects on life.

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To learn more about this topic, visit the following web sites:

Banded Iron Formations

Banded Iron Formation, University of Oregon
Examines the formation of banded iron formations.

Banded Iron Formations, Arizona State University
Examines the formation of banded iron formations.

The Rise of Oxygen in the Atmosphere

Origin of the Earth's Atmosphere, Eastern Illinois University
Examines the evolution of Earth’s atmosphere and supporting evidence.

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