Political Challenges to the Teaching
of Evolution (05-08-12)
The 1999 Kansas Board on Education decision brought
the evolution debate back into the national spotlight, stimulating
a growing number of challenges to the teaching of evolution in state
legislatures and school boards around the country. The challenges
come in many forms. Despite being rebuffed in the courts, some seek
to give equal time in classrooms to alternative theories of earth
and life history, including the Biblical account of creation. An increasingly
popular approach is to seek inclusion of Intelligent Design (ID),
a brand of creationism that emphasizes the role of a creator in establishing
order in the natural world. Numerous attempts have been made through
legislation to remove the teaching of evolution and earth history
from classrooms, or to require that textbooks include prefacing statements
that question the soundness of scientific theories contained therein.
These efforts fly in the face of science, and it is essential for
scientists -- and geoscientists especially -- to continue to inform
the public of the scientific method and the importance of the theory
of evolution and deep time to our understanding of the Earth as a
whole. This update provides information on recent
evolution challenges in the states, as well as links to additional
resources on this topic.
Click on any state in yellow
to read the details of how evolution is being challenged in classrooms,
school districts and state legislatures across the country.
The teaching of evolution in schools has long been a contentious
topic, particularly among evangelical Christians who make up the so-called
"religious right." They believe that it is narrow minded to exclude
"alternative theories of human existence" by not exposing children
to creationism in science classes. Periodically, the issue is raised
to the state legislative level, but through the efforts of concerned
citizens and scientific organizations, the efforts of creationists
to remove the topic of evolution or to include creationist dogma in
science standards and textbooks have been contained. The most well
publicized effort took place in Kansas in 1999, when the State Board
of Education approved science standards that contained no mention
of biological macroevolution, the age of the Earth, or the origin
and early development of the universe. The reaction of the scientific
community was forceful and broad-based. More detailed information
on the Kansas debate is found in an earlier version of this update
Other states continue to have events similar to those in Kansas.
In July 2000, the Pennsylvania Board of Education changed their science
standards to require students to "analyze... studies that support
or do not support the theory of evolution" and to require teachers
to present theories that "do and do not support the theory of evolution."
In April 2000, the Oklahoma legislature approved a bill with amendments
that required science textbooks to include "acknowledgment that human
life was created by one God of the universe" and gave the textbook
committee the power to insert one-page summaries or opinions in any
textbook. The Oklahoma attorney general overturned the law, ruling
that the textbook committee lacked the constitutional power to require
a disclaimer that evolution is a "controversial theory" in new textbooks.
A 1994 bill in Louisiana required the reading of a disclaimer whenever
evolution was to be presented that said, "the scientific concept [of
evolution is] not intended to influence or dissuade the Biblical version
of Creation or any other concept." The federal district court and
the Fifth District Court of Appeals ruled in favor of parents who
challenged the disclaimer. The Supreme Court refused to hear the case
on June 19, 2000. In October 1999, the Kentucky Department of Education
replaced the word "evolution" with "change over time" in state school
standards. New Mexico faced a Kansas-like experience in 1997 but emphatically
endorsed the teaching of evolution in its 1999 science standards.
In 1996, Alabama's science curriculum attracted national attention
when the Board adopted a disclaimer on the theory of evolution that
was pasted in all biology textbooks. Part of disclaimer stated that
evolution was a "controversial theory" presented by "some scientists"
as a "scientific explanation for the origin of living things." New
standards were adopted in February 2001 that removed the disclaimer
requirement, but the standards are still not satisfactory in the eyes
of many scientists who support the teaching of evolution. The scientific
community must continue to be informed of these trends and promote
the teaching of science and the scientific method in classrooms.
A poll commissioned by the People For the American Way Foundation
(PFAWF) in the spring of 1999 reported
that 83% of Americans think that evolution should be taught in public
school science classes. About 13% feel that creationism should be
taught alongside evolution is science classes. About 30% of those
are of the opinion that creationism should be discussed as a belief,
not as science. About 70% of Americans feel that the Bible and evolution
go hand in hand -- contrasted with creationists who argue that the
two are in conflict. According to the poll, 60% of Americans reject
the Kansas Board's 1999 decision to take evolution off of its list
of state science standards. This poll differed from previously conducted
polls because it focused solely on the evolution/creationist issue
instead of including it in a broader list of topics.
• Gateway to Smithsonian resources on evolution and paleontology
• Interactive geologic time scale - http://www.nmnh.si.edu/paleo/geotime/main/index.html.
NON-PROFIT AND EDUCATIONAL
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
• Information and resources on current evolution issues from
the world's largest general scientific society, including a "Q&A
on Evolution and Intelligent Design" - http://www.aaas.org/news/press_room/evolution/.
• The Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion (DoSER) information
and resources aimed at the general public, especially the religious
communities - http://www.aaas.org/spp/dser/ .
American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS)
• The AIBS/NCSE Evolution List Server Network allows scientists, teachers, and other interested parties to be in touch with each other locally, nationally, and internationally - http://www.aibs.org/mailing-lists/the_aibs-ncse_evolution_list_server.html .
The American Museum of Natural History
• The Darwin Digital Library of Evolution - http://darwinlibrary.amnh.org/.
Geotimes Magazine, a publication of the American Geological Institute
• The December 2000 issue of Geotimes was devoted to
the evolution debate - http://www.geotimes.org/dec00/index.html.
Articles include"The Politics of Education in Kansas" by
M. Lee Allison, "Studying Evolution and Keeping the Faith"
by Patricia H. Kelley, "Evolution Grades for the States"
(a review of the Fordham report), "Hot Spots across the U.S."
(an overview of recent flare-ups).
• The October 1999 issue of Geotimes features a series
of perspectives on the Kansas situation from geoscience community
leaders along with columns addressing the ramifications from both
public policy and curriculum development standpoints - http://www.geotimes.org/oct99/index.html.
• Geotimes coverage of the teaching of evolution in its
Political Scene and Geologic columns. Articles include:
"Creationism: Back in Kansas Again" - http://www.agiweb.org/geotimes/apr05/scene.html
"Shakespeare or the Monkey?" - http://www.geotimes.org/apr05/column.html
"Opposition to Evolution Takes Many Forms" - http://www.agiweb.org/geotimes/sept03/scene.html
"Federal Law Misused in Ohio Education Debate" - http://www.agiweb.org/geotimes/sept02/scene.html
"Creationists Open a New Front" - http://www.geotimes.org/july00/scene.html
"The Political Lessons of Kansas" - http://www.agiweb.org/geotimes/oct99/scene.html.
• An online evolution documentary from Arizona State University's
Institute of Human Origins - http://www.becominghuman.org/.
California Science Teachers Association
• Information about the evolution debate can be accessed through
CSTA's semi-annual scholarly journal, California Journal of Science
Education, which focused on the issue in 2001. Their website also
provides teaching evolution resources - http://www.cascience.org/evolution.html.
Geological Society of America
• Links, articles, and resources on evolution and creationism
• Website with lesson plans and links to additional resources
on paleontology and evolution - http://www.geosociety.org/educate/resources.htm#topic.
The National Academies
• Publications for teachers and the general public about evolution,
along with an extensive array of links to other resources - http://nationalacademies.org/evolution/.
National Association of Geoscience Teachers
• Information on online resources in the column "Exploring
Geology on the world-wide web - Invertebrate Paleontology and Evolution"
by Steven Henry Schimmrich - http://www.nagt.org/files/nagt/jge/columns/schimmrich_-_v4_1142628100.pdf.
• The Journal of Geoscience Education (JGE) is the publication
of record for NAGT, and serves as the only international forum for
the publication of research concerning the pedagogy, assessment, and
philosophy of teaching and learning about the geosciences - http://www.nagt.org/nagt/jge/index.html.
A list of JGE evolution articles is available at http://nagt.org/nagt/jge/indexes/subject/Pseudoscience.html.
A list of JGE palaeontology articles is available at http://nagt.org/nagt/jge/indexes/subject/Paleontology.html.
• The On The Cutting Edge workshop series and website helps
geoscience faculty stay up-to-date with both geoscience research and
teaching methods - http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/earlycareer/teaching/evolution.html
National Center for Science Education
• Up-to-date listings of anti-evolution activity around the
nation from a defender of the teaching of evolution in public schools-
Paleontological Research Institution
• The Paleontological Research Institution has developed tools
for museums on teaching evolution and also provides additional information
about issues regarding the teaching of evolution - http://www.priweb.org/evolution.htm.
• Extensive FAQ's on all aspects of evolution, intelligent design,
and creationism - http://www.talkorigins.org/.
University of California Berkeley
• An online evolution resource for teachers - http://evolution.berkeley.edu/.
• Resources on Darwin and evolution from the BBC - http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/darwin/index.shtml.
Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)
• A portal to PBS's shows on the science behind evolution -
• An extensive collection of multimedia and text resources on
evolution - http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/index.html.
• Frequently Asked Questions About Evolution- http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/faq/index.html.
Articles, Reports and Other
Documents (by date)
ARTICLES & BOOKS
Constitutional Debate over Teaching Intelligent Design as Science
in Public Schools" by Anne Marie Lofaso, American Constitution
Society for Law and Policy, December 2005.
It's Not Even Wrong," by The Honorable Rush Holt (D-NJ),
U.S. House of Representatives, September 8, 2005.
over Evolution: How Geoscientists can Help," (PDF) by Glen
Branch, National Center for Science Education. Article published in
the September, 2005 issue of The Sedimentary Record, a publication
of SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology.
Design Isn't," H. Allen Orr, The New Yorker, May 5,
or the Monkey?" by Fred Schwab, Geotimes, April 2005.
"Evolution, Creationism and the Courts: 20 Questions",
Randy Moore and Karen L. Miksch, The Science Education Review, 2003
- summary of U.S. court cases relating to the teaching of evolution
in public classrooms. Contact Randy Moore, firstname.lastname@example.org
to request a copy of the paper.
"Evolution and the Fossil Record",
John Pojeta, Jr., and Dale Springer, produced by AGI and the Paleontological
-- Written by paleontologists, this non-technical introduction to
evolution helps the general public gain a better understanding of
evolution, one of the fundamental underlying concepts of modern science.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2000.
and Time", Lucy E. Edwards and John Pojeta, Jr., U.S. Geological
Pope John Paul II, Message
to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, October 1996, on evolution.
Origin of Species", Charles Darwin, 1859.
NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
"Science, Evolution, and Creationism" Committee on Revising Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Sciences and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, 2008.
Hawaii: A Supplement to Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of
Science", Steve Olson, The National Academies, 2004.
Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences, Second
Edition", Steering Committee on Science and Creationism,
National Academy of Sciences, 1999.
Evolution and the Nature of Science", Working Group on Teaching
Evolution, National Academy of Sciences, 1998.
Astronomical Society Statement on the Teaching of Evolution.
National Science Teachers
Association Statement on the Teaching of Evolution.
Statements on Evolution from AGI and its member societies.
Sources: American Association for the Advancement of Science,
American Geophysical Union, American Institute of Biological Sciences,
Associated Press, Association for Women Geoscientists, Atlanta Journal-Constitution,
Duluth News Tribune, Kansas Geological Survey, Library of Congress,
Maryville Tennessee Daily Times, National Academies, National
Center for Science Education, National Science Teachers Association,
Wichita Eagle, Cleveland Plain Dealer, Rocky Mountain News.
Contributed by Linda Rowan, Director of Geoscience Policy; Corina Cerovski-Darriau, Geoscience Policy Staff; Marcy Gallo, Geoscience Policy Staff; Emily
Lehr Wallace, Geoscience Policy Staff; Katie Ackerly, Geoscience Policy Staff; David Applegate, previous Director of Government Affairs;
Mary Patterson, 2001 AGI/AAPG Spring Intern; Heather Golding, 2002
AGI/AAPG Spring Intern; Amanda Schneck, 2005 AGI/AIPG Summer Intern;
Anne Smart, 2005 AGI/AIPG Summer Intern; John Vermylen, 2005 AGI/AIPG
Summer Intern; and Jenny Fisher, 2006 AGI/AAPG Spring Intern.
Please send any comments or requests for information to AGI
Geoscience Policy Program.
Last updated on May 8, 2012