National Earthquake Hazards Reductions Program (10-26-04)
Natural disasters, including earthquakes, cause damage that impacts
communities across the country. The National Earthquake Hazards
Reduction Program (NEHRP) is an example of a federal program that
through broad based participation attempts to mitigate the effects
of earthquakes. Member agencies in NEHRP are the US Geological Survey
(USGS), the National Science Foundation
(NSF), the Federal Emergency Management
Agency (FEMA), and the National
Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST).
The agencies focus on research and development in areas such as
the science of earthquakes, earthquake performance of buildings
and other structures, societal impacts, and emergency response and
recovery. NEHRP is now up for reauthorization, having last been
authorized in 2000.
On October 25, President Bush signed the National Earthquake Hazards
Reduction Program (NEHRP) Reauthorization Act of 2004. Known as
H.R. 2608, this new public law reauthorizes the program for five
years, moving it from the jurisdiction of the Federal Emergency Management
Agency (FEMA) to the National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST). The bill also authorizes a new National Windstorm Impact Reduction
Program for three years. $900 million would be spent over the next
five years on implementing earthquake hazard reduction measures as
well as funding earthquake research activities such as the Advanced
National Seismic System. A pleased Representative Nick Smith (R-MI)
said, "Over the past two weeks, significant earthquake events
in California and Washington have garnered our attention and concern.
Thanks to NEHRP-supported monitoring equipment managed by the U.S.
Geological Survey and the National Science Foundation, scientists
have been able to collect an unprecedented harvest of data from both
of these geologic events.(10/26/04)
The House Science Committee passed H.R.
2608 by a voice vote on July 22nd. The final bill included a manager's
amendment offered by Research Subcommittee Chair Nick Smith (R-MI)
based on input received on the original bill from the affected federal
agencies and external constituents. The NEHRP Coalition, including
the American Geological Institute, sent a letter of support to Committee
Chairman Sherwood Boehlert (R-NY) for the amended bill. The committee
also accepted an amendment offered by Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee (D-TX)
to "ensure that research money goes to diverse institutions."
Rep. Dennis Moore (D-KS) sought to include a version of his wind hazard
bill -- H.R. 2020, the Hurricane, Tornado, and Related Hazards Research
Act -- as an amendment but withdrew the request after receiving an
assurance from Boehlert that H.R. 2020 would be considered by the
committee this Congress.
A committee press release listed the bill's major provisions as "(1)
establishment of an Interagency Coordinating Committee to manage NEHRP
planning and coordination, to be chaired by the Director of NIST [designating
NIST as the lead agency]; (2) establishment of an external Advisory
Committee of non-Federal stakeholders to provide suggestions for improvements
in NEHRP; (3) reauthorization of funds for completion of the Advanced
National Seismic System, an integrated seismic monitoring network
that was authorized by the Science Committee three years ago but has
yet to receive adequate funding; and (4) significant funding increases
for NIST, reflecting the call for increased emphasis on promoting
the adoption into practice of hazard reduction applications."
The press release quoted bill sponsor Smith: "I believe that
taxpayer funds for this Program, if directed to the right priorities
and implemented as a true interagency program, can be leveraged many
times over. It is a very important program that we forget about all
too easily. But we know that though infrequent, earthquakes are inevitable,
and that it is just a member of time before damaging earthquakes occur
again. Until that time, we can only promote policies at all levels
of government to increase preparedness and strength of the built environment.
This legislation helps us to do that." It also quoted bill co-sponsor
Rep. Brian Baird (D-WA): "On February 28, 2001, Washington state
was struck by a 6.8 magnitude earthquake, the epicenter of which was
located only a few miles from my district. The NEHRP program significantly
reduced the quake's economic impact. As Washington state will inevitably
experience additional earthquakes, this program remains tremendously
important. Considering FEMA's enormous homeland security responsibilities,
it seems sensible to transfer coordination of NEHRP to NIST, which
works directly with the engineers and scientists who design our nation's
infrastructure. Streamlining the federal bureaucracy by transferring
the administration of NEHRP will further protect our constituents
from future earthquakes." (7/22/03)
In preparation for the upcoming reauthorization process, several
events were recently held to highlight the important accomplishments
of NEHRP in monitoring earthquakes and mitigating hazards nationwide.
On February 20, 2003, the National Research Council's Natural
Disasters Roundtable held a meeting on "The National Earthquake
Hazards Reduction Program at Twenty-Five Years: Accomplishments and
Challenges." The meeting brought together representatives from
the USGS, FEMA, NIST, NSF, along with scientists, engineers, emergency
managers, and city planners to discuss NEHRP successes, challenges,
and priorities, and how it has led to advancements in earthquake research.
The following week, AGI and the Seismological
Society of America sponsored a USGS congressional briefing on
"Earthquake Monitoring for a Safer America." Speakers included
Dr. Lucy Jones, a seismologist with the USGS; Bruce Clark, a chairman
of the California Seismic Safety Commission; and Richard Howe, an
engineer with ABS Consulting. They discussed how the USGS and its
partners are meeting the Nation's needs for earthquake monitoring
and the proposed Advanced National Seismic
On May 8, 2003, the House Science Subcommittee on Research held a
hearing to examine the current status of the National Earthquake Hazards
Reduction Program (NEHRP) in preparation for reauthorization of the
program. The witnesses' testimonies
positively reflected NEHRP's accomplishments, stressed the importance
of improving funding to further the program, and raised concern over
the ability of the Federal Emergency
Management Agency to continue as the lead agency now that it is
part of the Department of Homeland Security.
For additional information, see AGI's Summary
of Hearings on the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program.
The June 2003
Political Scene column in Geotimes comments on the hearing. AGI
and member society Seismological Society of America were among the
signatories on a statement by the newly reconstituted NEHRP Coalition
that was submitted for the hearing. It can be viewed as a PDF
document. The statement also endorsed the goals set forth in a
recent report by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute entitled
Securing Society Against Catastrophic Earthquake Losses, also
available as a PDF.
(5/21/03; revised 6/28/03)
In June, members of the House Science Subcommittee on Research circulated
a "Dear Colleague" letter asking other representatives to
join them in asking the Appropriations Committee to provide additional
support for ANSS. Although the program is authorized at $36 million
annually, so far the most that has actually been appropriated to install
dense networks of seismic sensors in urban areas is $3.9 million.
For fiscal year 2004, the Bush Administration requested a 50 percent
cut to $2 million. A copy of the Dear Colleague can be found in the
alert sent on this issue. The House Appropriations Committee subsequently
approved a bill that would restore funding to the FY 2003 level of
$3.9 million. (6/28/03)
On June 26th, House Science Subcommittee on Research Chairman Nick
Smith (R-MI) and Rep. Brian Baird (D-WA) introduced H.R.
2608, legislation to reauthorize the National Earthquake Hazards
Reduction Program (NEHRP) for the next five years. Probably the most
significant change in this draft bill from previous authorizations
is the removal of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA; now
part of the Department of Homeland Security) as lead agency to be
replaced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
which would chair an Interagency Coordinating Committee on Earthquake
Hazard Reduction. The bill authorizes funds for the program, including
$36 million per year for the USGS's Advanced National Seismic System
(ANSS) initiative. The bill also would establish an Advisory Committee
for NEHRP that would include non-federal members. The bill emphasizes
the need for better reporting and accountability for the program,
including not only a strategic plan requirement but also regular assessments
by the advisory committee on the program's effectiveness. Smith has
pledged to work with the earthquake research community to revise the
bill in preparation for a committee vote in late July. (6/28/03)
On October 1, 2003 the House passed H.R.
2608 by voice vote. This bipartisan legislation reforms and increases
funding for the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP).
Authorizing more than $500 million through FY-2006 for this multi-agency
program, the bill designates the National Institute for Standards
and Technology (NIST) as NEHRP's chair, responsible for coordinating
the efforts of a number of entities. H.R. 2608 also emphasizes designing
structures to better withstand earthquakes, directs NEHRP to submit
an annual report to congress, and calls for the appointment of a broad
based, independent Advisory Committee.
Research Subcommittee Chairman and primary H.R. 2608 sponsor Nick
Smith (R-MI) reasoned that although earthquakes cannot be prevented,
"we can mitigate their impact. This legislation helps us to do
just that by strengthening both the focus and funding within NEHRP."
Cosponsor Rep. Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) added to this endorsement, explaining
that "the federal government must provide the necessary resources
and support needed by those in the earthquake research community to
understand the causes of earthquakes, to anticipate when and where
an earthquake may happen and most importantly, how can we best prepare
ourselves to survive the potentially devastating results of earthquakes."
The Senate has yet to introduce legislation that would correspond
to this NEHRP reauthorization. Smith said that the Science Committee
has been in discussions with the Senate Commerce Committee on the
bill, and is looking forward to working with them in the coming months
to complete work on this measure. The Senate is likely to hold hearings
early next spring and craft their own bill, which would then be conferenced
with the House version to produce a final product. The House and Senate
have until the end of the 108th Congress, or December 2004, to complete
their work on this bill. After that, a new Congress will have been
elected and the process begins anew. (10/6/03)
The Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation held a markup on
July 22nd, which included the National Earthquake Hazards Reductions
Program (NEHRP) Reauthorization Act, H.R.
2608, on the agenda. Along with a long list of other bills, H.R.
2608 was unanimously adopted at the beginning of the markup with the
stipulation that it could be amended later in the markup session.
This meant that the Committee approved the bill as reported by the
House though it reserved the right to make changes later that same
The changes proposed for this bill were bundled together as a manager's
amendment and included tacking the National
Impact Windstorm Reduction Program (NIWRP) (H.R.
3980) onto the bill, getting NEHRP authorization extended until
2009, changing the $3 million authorization obligation for performance-based
standards to 10% of the "actually appropriated" funds, and
slightly lowering authorization levels for the U.S. Geological Survey
(USGS) and the National Science Foundation (NSF).
The Committee, however, was not able to vote on any of these amendments
due to Senator Wyden (D-OR), who invoked Senate rule XXVI(5)(a) that
prohibits committees from meeting after the Senate has been in session
for two hours. The use of this rule in the Committee was unprecedented
and unrelated to the NEHRP bill. Senator Wyden objected to the nomination
of Deborah Majoras as chair of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
and Commerce Committee Chairman John McCain (R-AZ) was forced to end
the markup after Wyden invoked the two-hour rule.
H.R. 2608 will now go to the Senate floor for a vote in September
without the manager's amendments already attached. It is the same
bill the House passed on October 1, 2003. Senator McCain assured Senator
Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-TX) that the Windstorm bill would be brought
up with the other amendments as an amendment on the Senate floor in
September or introduced as a stand alone bill. (7/23/04)
Late in the day on October 6th the Senate passed H.R. 2608, the National
Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) Reauthorization Act,
under unanimous consent. Included was the McCain-Nelson Amendment
which effectively added H.R. 3980, the Windstorm Impact Reduction
Act, onto the bill. This larger, omnibus hazards bill now must travel
back to the House for their approval. It is expected that H.R. 2608
will be placed on the suspension calendar and voted on before Congress
adjourns October 8th. (10/7/04)
In the mid 1970's, concern over the 1971 San Fernando earthquake
and the Palmdale bulge (seismic zone in southern California) led
to the formation of the Newmark-Stever Committee by the President's
Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). Originally, the
committee was to develop a program to understand and address the
seismic hazards in southern California but was later expanded to
include national earthquake hazards. The committee's recommendations
were used to establish the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act, which
Law 95-124 on October 7, 1977. The Act established the National
Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) as a long-term, nationwide,
earthquake risk reduction program. It also designated member agencies
and their activities and responsibilities.
NEHRP has supported research in several areas including: science
of earthquakes, earthquake performance of buildings and other structures,
earthquake-resistant structural design standards and practices,
societal impacts, emergency response and recovery, regional land
use planning; and education programs for the public. Member agencies
in the NEHRP are the United States Geological Survey (USGS),
the National Science Foundation (NSF),
the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA),
and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
The main focus of these agencies under NEHRP has been research and
In 1990, Senator Al Gore (D-TN) introduced a bill to reauthorize
the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977. On November 16, 1990,
this bill became Public
Law 101-614 and significantly amended NEHRP by refining the
agency responsibilities, program goals, and objectives to include:
- Giving FEMA the primary responsibility for planning and coordinating
- Conducting earthquake hazard identification and vulnerability
- Developing seismic design and construction standards
- Developing an earthquake prediction capability
- Preparing plans for mitigation, preparedness and response activities
- Conducting fundamental and applied research into the causes
and implications of earthquake hazards
- Educating the public about earthquake hazards.
In November 1993, concerns were raised regarding the effectiveness
of NEHRP. The program was seen as lacking a strategic plan, having
insufficient coordination and implementation of research results,
and lacking emphasis on mitigation. In response to these concerns,
Dr. John H. Gibbons, Director of the Office of Science and Technology
Policy (OSTP) directed that a
report be drafted to address the concerns. The review was done by
the National Earthquake Strategy Working Group (NESW), and the result
was the report Strategy
for National Earthquake Loss Reduction and the formation of
the National Earthquake Loss Reduction Program (know as NEP).
The goals of NEP, coordinated by FEMA, included providing leadership
and coordination for federal earthquake research, improving technology
transfer and outreach, improving engineering of the built environment,
improving data for construction standards and codes, continuing
the development of seismic hazards and risk assessment tools, analyzing
seismic hazard mitigation incentives, developing an understanding
of societal impacts and responses related to earthquake hazard mitigation,
analyzing the medical and public health consequences of earthquakes,
and continuing documentation of earthquakes and their effects. In
order to accomplish the goals of the NEP, the working group outlined
primary objectives and goals for each of the member agencies.
FEMA Primary Responsibilities: provide overall planning and coordination;
report to Congress on the status of NEHRP; review, analyze, and
recommend revisions to NEHRP; provide opportunities for States,
localities, private organizations and individuals to participate
in NEHRP; provide assistance to States and local governments to
implement comprehensive earthquake hazard reduction programs;
develop and disseminate improved seismic design and construction
techniques and standards for Federal, State, and local entities,
and for voluntary use of model code groups and design professionals;
and develop public education and awareness programs; and coordinate
the Federal response to catastrophic earthquakes.
USGS Primary Responsibilities: identify and evaluate the earthquake
potential of seismic areas in the United States; develop methods
to predict future earthquakes, including the issuance of earthquake
predictions; provide data and information on earthquake hazards
and risk in urban regions exposed to the earthquake threat; and
provide data and estimates of the level and character of earthquake
strong-ground motion for earthquake-resistant design and construction.
NSF Primary Responsibilities: conduct research on the effects
of earthquakes and earthquake motion on manmade structures and
the performance of these structures during earthquakes; develop
methods to design, construct, and rehabilitate structures to improve
their performance during earthquakes; assess the social, economic,
and political impacts of earthquakes and earthquake hazard reduction
measure; integrate and disseminate earthquake research knowledge;
and support basic research into the fundamental causes and conditions
of earthquakes, including research on earthquake mechanisms, crustal
movements, and seismology.
NIST Primary Responsibilities: provide technical support and
conduct research for developing, testing and improving seismic
design and construction methods; and provide technical guidance
on incorporating these provisions into Federal construction practices,
national standards, and State and local regulation.
NEHRP was reauthorized on October 19, 1994 by Public
Law 103-374. This Act authorized $103 million for fiscal year
(FY) 1995 and $106 million for FY 1996. The Act also directed the
President to conduct an assessment of earthquake engineering research
and testing facilities in the United States. The administration,
through NSF and NIST, developed the Earthquake Engineering Research
Institute (EERI) to conduct the assessment. EERI made several recommendations
regarding the state of the nation's earthquake engineering testing
facilities. The primary recommendation among these was to develop
and implement a comprehensive plan for upgrading existing earthquake
engineering research and testing facilities.
On October 1, 1997, President Clinton signed into law the National
Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) authorization bill
for Fiscal Years 1998 and 1999. The law contains several new initiatives,
including the development of a real-time seismic hazard warning
system, an assessment of seismic monitoring networks, and a feasibility
study for establishing a second emergency personnel training center
on the West Coast. Increased funding levels were authorized for
R&D in earthquake science, engineering, public education, and
NEHRP was last reauthorized in 2000 for two years under Public
Law 106-503 for two years. The reauthorization bill established
the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) and the
Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS),
a nationwide network of monitors to measure shaking on the ground
and in buildings. The goal of ANSS is to provide real-time earthquake
information -- such as location, magnitude, and effect -- to emergency
response personnel, engineers, and geoscientist. The initiative
hopes to reduce loss of life and property by improving our understanding
of earthquake occurrences, fault activity, and solid earth structure;
and by providing information on how structures on different soils
respond to earthquakes in order to improve construction. ANSS was
authorized for $170 million over five years program, but the program
has only been funded at only about 10 percent of this level.
For additional information see the USGS fact sheet The
USGS Earthquake Hazards Program in NEHRPInvesting in a Safer
Future and the Geotimes articles Milestones
in Earthquake Research by Robert M. Hamilton and The
Urban Evolution of U.S. Earthquake Monitoring by Lisa M.
Sources: USGS Earthquake Information website; White House Library
website; FEMA website; National Science and Technology Council Report:
Strategy for National Earthquake Loss Reduction; House Report 105-238;
Senate Report 105-59; Seismological Society of America; House Science
Committee press release; Congressional Record.
Contributed by 2003 Spring Semester Intern Charna Meth, David Applegate,
2003 Fall Semester Intern Ashley M. Smith; 2004 Summer Intern Ashlee
Dere, David Millar 2004 AAPG/AGI Fall Semester Intern and Emily Lehr
Wallace, AGI Government Affairs Program Staff. Background section
includes material from AGI's Update
on NEHRP for the 105th Congress.
Please send any comments or requests for information to AGI Government Affairs Program.
Last updated on October 20, 2004.