Summary of Hearings on Natural Gas (7-7-06)
- June 28, 2006: House Small Business
Committee, Subcommittee on Tax, Finance, and Exports
- November 17, 2005: House Resources Committee,
Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources, Hearing on the
"Outer Continental Shelf Natural Gas Relief Act"
- October 25, 2005: Senate Appropriations
Committee, Interior and Related Agencies Subcommittee, Hearing
to examine the oil and gas activities by the Bureau of Land
Management, including the impact of recently passed energy legislation.
- September 14, 2005: House Government
Reform Committee, Energy and Resources Subcommittee, Hearing
on "Meeting America's Natural Gas Demand: Are We in a Crisis?"
- February 15, 2005: Senate Energy and
Natural Resources Committee, Energy Subcommittee, Hearing on
The Future of Liquefied Natural Gas: Siting and Safety
- January 25, 2005: Senate Energy and Natural
Resources Committee, Conference about Proposed Solutions to
the Predicted U.S. Shortage of Natural Gas
Small Business Committee, Subcommittee on Tax, Finance and Exports,
Hearing on the "The
Effects of the High Cost of Natural Gas on Small Businesses
and Future Energy Technologies"
June 28, 2006
James Kendell, Director, Natural Gas Division, Energy Information
Walter Cruickshank, Deputy Director, Minerals Management Service
Tom Lonnie, Assistant Director, Minerals, Realty and Resource Protection
Directorate, Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior
Richard Goodstein, Washington Representative, Air Products and Chemicals,
Jeff Uhlenburg, President, Donovan Heat Treating Company
Paul Wilkinson, Vice President of Policy Analysis, American Gas Association
Lowell Ungar, Senior Analyst, Alliance to Save Energy
The House Committee on Small Business, Subcommittee on Tax, Finance
and Exports held a hearing to address the effect of rising natural
gas prices on small businesses. In their opening statements, members
continuously expressed concern that high natural gas prices were hurting
small businesses. "Currently small businesses are suffering under
the high cost of natural gas
it's our responsibility as members
of Congress to ensure that the government is not interfering with
the development of low cost energy," said Chairman Jeb Bradley
James Kendell, Director of the Natural Gas Division at the Energy
Information Administration, discussed recent data collected on natural
gas prices. He stated that the price hike of last winter was caused
by supply problems from the hurricane season and increased consumption
by the electric generation utilities. However, that spike doesn't
reflect a trend for the near future. "Natural gas prices are
projected to be lower for the rest of 2006
down $1.12 per thousand
cubic feet from last year," projected Kendell. In addition, the
prospect of increased drilling may help drive prices even lower.
The next witness described the potential of outer continental shelf
(OCS) drilling to reduce natural gas prices. "The OCS is a major
supplier of natural gas, and supplies more gas than any state other
than Texas," described Walter Cruickshank, Deputy Director of
the Minerals Management Service. "In recent years, the strongest
growth has been in the deep water OCS (over 1000ft)
been a major success story, with 90 new wells being drilled,"
he said. He also described the effect major weather events have on
the ability to recover natural gas, and stated "Since the onset
of Hurricane Katrina, 9% of [recoverable Gulf of Mexico] gas has remained
shut in." Future severe weather catastrophes may have a similar
impact on the ability to drill, and thus cause short term price spikes.
He concluded his testimony by reviewing the potential of the OCS to
supply natural gas. "There are 420 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered,
recoverable gas," he said, "leaving great potential for
expanded OCS drilling."
Tom Lonnie, the Assistant Director for Minerals, Realty and Resource
Protection Directorate at the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), briefly
reviewed the role of the BLM in exploring for and recovering natural
gas. "BLM administers over 45,000 oil and gas leases, of which
over 23,000 are producing
[BLM] ensures production on public
lands in an environmentally friendly way," he said. Lonnie also
commented that the demand for natural gas has long surpassed the domestic
capacity to supply more, leaving the price of natural gas open to
volatility and fluctuation.
Witnesses from the private sector also discussed their concern with
high natural gas prices. Richard Goodstein, a Washington representative
for Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., described the critical role
of natural gas in producing hydrogen. "The country will need
the building block of hydrogen, natural gas," he said. Hydrogen
may possibly be the nation's primary transportation fuel in the next
20 to 30 years, however, the hydrogen industry across the nation is
in the early stages of development. Even so, in some regions of the
country, the hydrogen industry has made significant progress into
the market place in recent years. "In some places in California,
hydrogen is available as a cost competitive fuel
government support, the U.S. can have a competitive edge in the development
of hydrogen," reflected Goodstein.
Jeff Uhlenburg, President of the Donovan Heat Treating Company, described
how his business struggled to operate during the last major increase
in natural gas prices. Gas supply to his plant is cut off when supplies
are low because electric utility demand is high. "Small business
cannot compete with the electric utilities for natural gas,"
he said. This has a large impact on the cost of running his plant
because they have to switch to propane, which is significantly more
expensive than methane. Last year this resulted in major layoffs.
Uhlenberg also encouraged members to allow continued development of
natural gas. "Government should continue to give incentives for
the market to work
and allow fast track environmental permitting
as long as they meet reasonable limits on emissions," he said.
In his final comments, Uhlenburg also noted the importance of energy
efficiency. "Conservation and efficiency is something each and
every one of us can do right. Each business should work to conserve
as much as possible."
Paul Wilkinson, Vice President of Policy Analysis at the American
Gas Association, discussed the need for greater access to natural
gas reserves. He commented on several congressional initiatives to
expand natural gas drilling. "Drilling in the outer continental
shelf is a step in the right direction," he said. "The three
major steps to reduce the price of natural gas are to unlock domestic
sources of natural gas, expand infrastructure like the Alaskan pipeline,
and invest in liquefied natural gas receiving terminals at our ports,"
he said. Before these steps are taken, "the winds of weather"
will always have an effect on prices.
Members of the committee asked questions concerning the stability
of natural gas prices. Reps. Jeb Bradley (R-NH), Susan Kelly (R-NY),
and Juanita Millender-McDonald (D-CA) were concerned that wide variations
and unpredictability in natural gas prices hurt small businesses as
much as the high prices themselves. Kendell responded to their concerns,
citing the unpredictable hurricane season as a potential source of
variability. However, other than abnormal catastrophes, prices should
decrease. Kendell cautiously predicted that prices may become relatively
stable compared to 2005, but insisted that the prices will not be
as stable as the 1990s. "We don't expect them to be stable from
month to month or from year to year," he said.
Resources Committee, Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources,
Hearing on the "Outer
Continental Shelf Natural Gas Relief Act"
November 17, 2005
Geoffrey Hunt, Senior Vice President, Osram Sylvania
David Bradley, Executive Director, National Community Action Foundation
Jack Gerard, President, American Chemical Council
Keith Oellig, President, Dauphin County (PA) Farm Bureau
Michael L. Bennett, President and Chief Executive Officer, Terra Industries
On November 17, 2005 the House Resources Subcommittee on Energy and
Mineral Resources held a hearing to discuss the Outer Continental
Shelf Natural Gas Relief Act (HR
4318), which proposes to allow natural gas drilling in areas more
than 20 miles offshore. The bill, which is cosponsored by Representatives
John Peterson (R-PA) and Neil Abercrombie (D-HI), is seen by some
as a more heavy-handed approach to offshore energy development than
a bill introduced by Resources Committee chairman Richard Pombo (R-CA)
that would let states opt-out of a current offshore drilling moratorium
for both oil and gas development.
Both Peterson and Abercrombie were present to promote the bill. Peterson
emphasized that natural gas shortages were a "problem caused
by government" since the Clinton administration had promoted
the use of natural gas without allowing the development of offshore
supplies. Peterson said he was promoting offshore development because
it is the easiest way to deliver gas to those who need it and because
it has no onshore environmental impact. Abercrombie pointed out that
his presence alone indicated that the issue is not a partisan one,
and he said the bill's opponents were "missing a genuine opportunity
to make a difference."
The witnesses presented the views of several of the industries--including
manufacturing, chemicals, fertilizer, and agriculture--that rely on
natural gas and face major problems if prices continue to rise. Jack
Gerard from the American Chemical Council predicted especially dire
consequences. "Winter is coming. Home heating bills will climb
by as much as 70 percent. Factories will be forced to close or cut
back operations. Jobs will be lost. The economy will contract,"
he said. "What will it take to finally pass legislation to permit
more access to new supplies of energy in deep-sea waters?" David
Bradley from the National Community Action Foundation, emphasized
the concern that the poor are particularly vulnerable to the high
cost of natural gas for home heating. The Outer Continental Shelf
Natural Gas Relief Act would provide ten percent of new natural gas
leasing revenues to low income home energy programs.
The prospect of jobs and factories moving overseas to countries with
cheaper natural gas, in particular China, loomed over the hearing.
At one point Peterson warned the committee that Hershey foods, which
is based in his district, might soon be making its chocolate outside
of the United States. Abercrombie asked the panel about China's policy
on offshore drilling for gas. Gerard replied that while China imported
most of its gas, it was looking at increasing its domestic onshore
and offshore supplies. He also reminded the subcommittee of the often
repeated fact that "the United States is the only country in
the world that restricts access to energy resources."
Subcommittee members were also interested in hearing the witnesses'
ideas on how to increase public awareness of this potential crisis
and overcome widespread opposition to offshore drilling. Gerard told
the committee that "a lot of people who are environmentally in
tune accept this issue." Abercrombie said his experience did
not agree with that assessment though. "I've been put in the
village stocks by the environmental groups," he said. Bradley
predicted that "once the heating bills hit in January, a lot
of people are going to support policies that directly impact these
costs." Several witnesses suggested that media campaigns to encourage
energy conservation could also be used to educate people on natural
Overall the witnesses expressed a great deal of anxiety over the
effects of rising natural gas costs, and emphasized it was important
for Congress to act as quickly as possible. Geoffrey Hunt, who represented
lightbulb manufacturer Sylvania, said his company had gone as far
as it could with energy conservation, and he urged the subcommittee
members to help him keep Sylvania factories open. "I'm not looking
for a handout," he said. "I'm looking for free market economics
to work." Gerard told the committee there was still some hope
to reverse negative impacts on American industries, since opening
offshore areas would send a market signal that would moderate gas
prices immediately, even if new production would take several years
to come on line.
Appropriations Committee, Interior and Related Agencies Subcommittee
Hearing to examine the oil and gas activities by the Bureau
of Land Management,
including the impact of
recently passed energy legislation
October 25, 2005
Kathleen Clarke, Director, Bureau of Land Management
Logan Magruder, President, Independent Petroleum Association of Mountain
Paul Cicio, Executive Director, Industrial Energy Consumers of America
Ford B. West, President, The Fertilizer Institute
On October 25, 2005 the Interior and Related Agencies
Subcommittee of the Senate Appropriations Committee met to examine
oil and gas activities on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) lands. Opening
the hearing, Subcommittee Chairman Conrad Burns (R-MT) suggested that
the current focus on increasing offshore oil and gas production was
misplaced. "It takes a long time to build a platform," he
said. "There are trillions of cubic feet [of natural gas] onshore,
where pipelines are already in place." Senator Larry Craig had
harsh words for the BLM, claiming that the agency had not risen to
the challenge of meeting the nation's growing energy demand. "I'd
like to know who's asleep at the switch," he said.
BLM Director Kathleen Clarke attempted to answer this
criticism with her testimony, pointing out that the BLM had rapidly
increased the number of drilling permits it approved during her tenure.
This year the agency approved 7000 Applications for Permits to Drill
(ADPs) she said, double the amount it approved in 2002. Clarke also
praised some provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, particularly
the establishment of pilot offices to streamline permitting, but pointed
out that the law does not address environmental regulations that are
a major stumbling block to increased energy development. Logan Magruder,
from the Independent Petroleum Association of Mountain States, testified
that the backlog of ADPs had increased dramatically over the past
few years, and agreed with Clarke that environmental regulations were
a major reason behind this. At one point Magruder pointed to a convoluted
chart that represented the steps necessary for complying with the
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Two other witnesses, Paul
Cicio and Ford West, who represent industries that rely on natural
gas, testified as to how high natural gas prices are hurting these
industries, and in many cases forcing the closure of fertilizer and
Both Cicio and West partly blamed the high price of
natural gas on the increasing use of the fuel to produce electricity.
Senator Robert Bennett (R-UT) suggested that the Energy Policy Act
had addressed this problem, saying that it promotes "nuclear
for electricity, and gas for industry." West, however, said,
"The problem is only going to get worse, since there are new
gas electric plants being built." Senator Pete Domenici (R-NM)
asked what the panel thought of gradually reducing the percentage
of natural gas that utilities were allowed to use. Cicio said the
industries he represents wouldn't support that because it was a government
mandate. Instead he suggested that Congress amend the Clean Air Act
in order to encourage the use of coal for electricity.
Another subject that prompted discussion during the
hearing was the effect of winter regulations on drilling activity.
In response to a question from Domenici, Clarke said the BLM was legally
required to "accommodate sensitive or game species needing habitat
during certain seasons." Magruder said he was sensitive to concerns
about elk hunting, but also pointed to anecdotal evidence of drilling
being interrupted for up to five months due to habitat restrictions.
Burns agreed that this was an issue that needed further discussion,
saying, "I'm not an expert, but I've never seen wildlife out
there in the dead of winter. This winter issue is bigger than we thought."
Clarke also mentioned that there is a pilot program in the Pinedale,
Wyoming BLM office testing the effect of winter drilling on wildlife
Most of the hearing was focused on natural gas, but
Senator Wayne Allard (R-CO) was eager to discuss the development of
oil shale, which is abundant in his state. Clarke said the BLM had
received about 20 proposals for research and development permits involving
oil shale, and that the agency would finish issuing those permits
in the spring.
Government Reform Committee, Energy and Resources Subcommittee
Hearing on "Meeting America's Natural Gas Demand: Are We
in a Crisis?"
September 14, 2005
Rebecca Watson, Assistant Secretary for Land and Minerals Management,
Department of Interior
Guy Caruso, Administrator, Energy Information Administration, Department
Michael Zenker, Senior Director, North American Natural Gas, Cambridge
Energy Research Associates
Logan Magruder, President, Independent Petroleum Association of Mountain
Tyson Slocum, Research Director of Energy Programs, Public Citizen
On September 14, 2005, the Government Reform Subcommittee,
chaired by Representative Darrell Issa (R-CA), revisited measures
to alleviate the burdens of escalating natural gas prices on consumers
and businesses. The committee heard testimony from administration
officials, industry representatives and consumer advocates on the
status of the natural gas crisis in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.
Discussion also included the virtues and limitations of the new Energy
Policy Act of 2005, and recommendations for additional, more aggressive
According to Guy Caruso of the Energy Information Administration,
natural gas prices peaked at $13 per thousand cubic feet (tcf) following
Hurricane Katrina, up from $10 per tcf, which was already over double
2004 prices. According to Rebecca Watson, Assistant Secretary of Land
and Minerals Management, 35% of Gulf Coast natural gas supply, meaning
about 7% of the nation's total natural gas supply, remained shut down
as of the hearing, as industry continued to repair damage to onshore
support facilities. While both officials remained optimistic about
recovery, Caruso said that the near-term outlook for price stability
would depend heavily on the timing and pace of the effort and that,
even if heating prices recovered before this winter, prices of petroleum-based
products would remain high for a long time thereafter. Assuming a
"medium" rate of recovery, the EIA expected residential
heating gas prices to be 46% higher than last winter on average, or
71% higher in some areas of the northern Midwest.
In his opening statement and throughout the hearing, Chairman Issa
stressed the negative impact that persistent high natural gas prices
have on U.S. competitiveness, as manufacturing industries struggle
to keep up with the global market. Although Issa called the recently
passed energy bill "a step in the right direction," he added
that events such as Hurricane Katrina "have caused a reexamination
of policies and practices in terms of domestic production." Namely,
Issa called for revisiting possibilities such as year-round onshore
drilling, increased outer-continental shelf production, and more liquefied
natural gas terminals.
In contrast, the committee's ranking member, Diane Watson (D-CA),
zeroed in on the possibility of market manipulation and how it may
be impacting prices. She also stressed the importance of facilitating
long-term as well as short-term solutions as the nation recovers from
the immediate crisis. Similar to the energy crisis in California,
she said, supply shocks like the post-Katrina situation are in part
attributed to the kind of "shortsighted planning" included
in the energy bill, and exacerbated by price gouging among energy
Witnesses tended to side with the views of either Chairman Issa or
Representative Watson as they delivered their recommendations. Secretary
Watson and Logan Magruder, President of the Independent Petroleum
Association of Mountain States, pressed hard for expanded access to
natural gas supplies on federal land and the outer-continental shelf,
especially the 139 tcf trapped in the intermountain region of the
western United States. Watson said that, while the Energy Policy Act
of 2005 gave the Interior Department mandates to increase permits
to drill, legal battles have increased 4-fold over the last four years,
placing further pressure on the supply market. Magruder agreed, calling
for an overhaul of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which
he said is primarily responsible for slowing development. Also pushing
for supply diversification, Mike Zenker from Cambridge Energy added
that there would be no feasible way to meet the nation's growing demand
without increasing imported liquefied natural gas.
On the other end of the spectrum, Tyson Slocumb from Public Citizen,
a consumer advocacy group, pushed for better regulatory oversight
of energy companies and an emphasis on conservation. "Strengthening
transparency empowers market participants and makes for more efficient,
competitive markets, which in turn lead to fair prices for consumers,"
he said. One policy he emphasized to curb demand, conceived by the
American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), would reduce
natural gas demand by 10% by 2020.
During the question and answer period, witnesses and members disagreed
further about where the energy bill failed to meet the nation's needs,
and what Congress should focus on now. Representative Brian Higgins
(D-NY) agreed with Slocumb that subsidies for energy industry contained
within the energy bill dwarfed the bill's conservation measures, asserting
that "the energy bill provides just enough incentives for alternative
energy sources to say we're doing something." Secretary Watson
disagreed with this assessment, arguing that the bill contained several
meaningful measures. She declared that the focus of congress should
be on public education rather than creating new environmental and
other regulatory laws.
Energy and Natural Resources Committee
Hearing on the Future of Liquefied Natural Gas: Siting and Safety
February 15, 2005
The Honorable Jack Reed, United States Senator, Rhode Island
The Honorable David N. Cicilline, Mayor, City of Providence, Rhode
Mr. Mike Peevey, President of the California Public Utility Commission
Mr. Thomas Giles, Executive Vice President & CEO of Sound Energy
Mr. Rick Grant, President & CEO of Distrigas, Everett LNG Terminal
Mr. Mark Robinson, Director of the Office of Energy Projects, Federal
Energy Regulatory Commission
Captain David Scott, Chief of the Office of Operating & Environmental
Standards, U.S. Coast Guard
Mr. Bill Kramer, Deputy Director, New Jersey Division of Fire Safety
Mr. Mike Hightower, Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff, Sandia
Following up on a half-day natural gas conference organized last
month, witnesses from FERC, the Coast Guard, State authorities, and
industry stakeholders offered testimony on LNG siting and safety before
the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee Energy Subcommittee.
The hearing focused on the siting process of LNG terminals and infrastructure,
risk assessment, and the involvement of State and local governments.
At the center of the debate over siting new, safe LNG facilities
lies the proposal to grant the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
(FERC) primary jurisdiction over the regulatory process. Senator Jack
Reed (D-RI) and David Cicilline, Mayor of Providence, testified against
a plan for an import terminal in Providence, RI, accusing FERC of
already failing to cooperate with local officials in considering significant
risks, such as shipping imports through a heavily populated area and
allowing grandfathered safety standards. On the other end of the table,
Thomas Giles of Sound Energy Solutions testified that the regulatory
process has been undermined by needless jurisdictional disputes in
the Long Beach, CA project, and FERC should be named lead agency to
avoid such disputes nationwide. Giles as well as Mark Robinson, representing
FERC, assured the committee that state authority would be maintained
through the Coastal Management Act, the Clean Water Act and the Clean
Mike Peevey, President of the California Public Utilities Commission,
which is battling FERC for jurisdiction over the Long Beach site,
proposed Congress should, "rather than consider legislation for
exclusive federal jurisdiction, consider legislation for concurrent
federal/state jurisdiction and not preempt state government."
He asserted that state agencies have "a much better understanding
than FERC of unique local conditions" and also have greater opportunity
to raise public awareness and support.
In the second panel, witnesses reported on various safety concerns
of on-shore and off-shore terminals, susceptibility to terrorist attacks,
and the overall excellent safety record of LNG vessels and facilities.
When asked by Senator Lamar Alexander (R-TN) regarding the advantages
of off-shore facilities, Robinson testified that off-shore terminals
are unprecedented for the U.S., much more expensive to construct,
and they involve their own environmental risks. Grant testified that
off-shore facilities would be "good supplements" to onshore
facilities, which are more secure and reliable because they are located
in the market area.
Energy and Natural Resources Committee
Conference about Proposed
Solutions to the Predicted U.S. Shortage of Natural Gas
January 25, 2005
32 invited groups including the Natural Gas Council, Advanced Resources,
National Ocean Industries Association, Western Organization of Resource
Councils, New Mexico Oil and Gas Association, American Public Gas
Association, State of Alaska, National Commission on Energy Policy,
Dominion Energy, Center for Liquefied Natural Gas, National Association
of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
(FERC), State of Louisiana, Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission,
Instate Natural Gas Association of America, Consumer Federation, Independent
Storage, The Wilderness Society, Natural Resources Defense Council,
Independent Petroleum Association of America, Domestic Petroleum Council,
Calpine, National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners,
Nuclear Energy Institute, PPM Energy, Harvard University, Coal Utilization
Research Council, American Gas Association, American Council for an
Energy-Efficient Economy, Committee of Chief Risk Officers, American
Electric Powe, Consumers Alliance for Affordable Natural Gas, New
York Mercantile Exchange and Natural Gas Council.
On January 25th, Senate Energy & Natural Resources
Committee staff invited 32 representatives from industry, environmental
groups, and government agencies to discuss 38 policy proposals that
would address the growing gap between natural gas supply and demand.
The conference was meant to initiate bipartisan discussion and draw
attention to rising gas prices before the Senate issues an energy
bill draft later this Spring.
The half-day conference involved six panels devoted to policy topics
including the expansion of on-shore and off-shore domestic supplies,
liquefied natural gas (LNG) siting and safety, infrastructure improvement,
environmental concerns, and the use of fuel efficiency and diversification
Representatives from the oil and gas and utilities industries put
forth numerous proposals for streamlining the permitting process and
expanding domestic production, calling for a re-evaluation of environmental
regulations in the face of improved technology. Many proposals sought
access to restricted land around the Rocky Mountains, in the outer
continental shelf, and expanded production in the Gulf of Mexico.
Oil and Gas stakeholders claimed that production could be realized
without creating a lasting environmental impact. The Bureau of Land
Management (BLM) and USGS reported 85% of the 400 trillion cubic feet
(tcf) offshore domestic natural gas supplies and 55% of the 600 TCF
onshore supplies would be available with direct action from Congress.
Environmentalists testified that domestic production can be increased
without surrendering restricted land and relaxing environmental standards,
citing that 88% conventional natural gas resources are already currently
available for leasing and development under the BLM onshore program.
The continental shelf, they claimed, would simply be "too fragile"
to sustain gas operations. Other policy suggestions included a targeted
interest in BLM funding to improve land use mitigation and an emphasis
on efficiency programs and a national renewable energy portfolio standard.
Senator Jeff Bingaman (D-NM) announced a consensus that BLM and the
Forest Service should receive more funding to act on drilling applications
and monitoring compliance.
Many who supported the development and expansion of natural gas and
LNG operations emphasized the need to grant the Federal Energy Regulatory
Commission (FERC) full authority over the siting and certification
process in order to minimize jurisdictional disputes among government
Proposals to promote supply diversification and energy conservation
received much attention as key components of natural gas policy. A
representative from the American Council for and Energy-Efficient
Economy (ACEEE) testified that, with supply and demand in tight balance,
a small, 4-5% improvement in efficiency could result in a much larger,
25% reduction in gas demand, translating to roughly $100 billion in
savings. Among those advocating for improved diversification, coal
gasification, synthesis gas, wind and nuclear were top picks for alternative
Sources: Hearing testimony, E&E Daily.
Contributed by Katie Ackerly, AGI/AAPG 2005 Spring Semester Intern,
Peter Douglas, AGI/AAPG 2005 Fall Intern, and Tim Donahue, AGI/AIPG
Please send any comments or requests for information to AGI
Government Affairs Program.
Last updated on November 22, 2005.